Dark Energy is an attractive force at the outer limit of the universe that powers the universe. It is the primary "Law of Nature" that causes all the galaxies to fall (accelerate) toward the outer boundary of the Universe.
© 1999 - 2015 Donald L. Hamilton
The physical laws of the universe (The Laws of Nature - inertia, gravity, etc.) that create absolute space. They create and determine the extent of the universe, neither matter or energy can exist without these laws. Stars could not form nor radiate their tremendous power without these laws. Nothing can exist without these laws, theyeither go on forever or at some distance they cease to exist, (the universe is either infinite or finite). I say the universe is finite, at some distance the laws cease to exist. This is the boundary of the universe where a mysterious attractive "Dark Energy" force is located! This is the 5th force "dark energy" that powers the universe!
The universe can only exist where the "Laws of Nature" exist. Where the laws end the universe ends, nothing can exist beyond the laws of nature. If the laws of nature are expanding the universe can also be expanding. The galaxies are simply falling (accelerating) toward the boundary of an expanding universe powered by an attractive "dark energy" force similar to gravity.
The universe is shaped like a hollow sphere with all the physical Laws of Nature contained within the sphere. Beyond the the Laws of Nature (beyond the sphere) the laws of the universe (inertia, gravity, etc.) no longer exert their influence to guide and govern, matter and energy. Beyond this border, the Laws of Nature do not exist, therefore nothing can exist! Neither matter or energy can exist not even absolute (universal) space itself can exist.
Back in the 1920's, shortly after the discovery of galaxies, astronomers discovered that the galaxies have red shifts indicating that they are moving away from our galaxy. It was soon determined, mainly by Hubble & Humason that the further away these galaxies seemed to be - the greater was the red shift. The universe seemed to be uniformily expanding in every direction. At the farthest reaches of the observable universe the galaxies were calculated to be traveling near the speed of light. This led to the Big Bang theory which would explain the outward rush of the galaxies. The comologists say that universe is in a perpetual state of expansion.
As an alternative to this currently accepted "Big Bang Theory" which depends on a tremendous initial event to get the universe into its perpetual expansion, I would like to offer the following hypothesis: Instead of the perpetual expansion of universal space, to explain the receding galaxies, I contend that they are simply falling toward the outer boundary of a FINITE NON-EXPANDING UNIVERSE. Hoyle was right! Some sort of force is causing the galaxies to accelerate outward. I feel there is an attractive "dark energy" force at the boundary of the universe that is causing the galaxies to fall (accelerate) toward it. A perpetually expanding universe requires a constant expansion (creation) of the "Laws of Nature".
In my book, "The Mind of Mankind", published in 1996, (before the cosmologists discovered the galaxies were actually accelerating), I felt the galaxies were falling (accelerating) because a mysterious attractive force was being exerted on them at the boundary of the universe. They were falling toward the boundary of the universe. This mysterious attractive force at the boundary of the universe is the primary source of all the energy in the Universe. This is the "Dark Energy Force" that powers the universe
Dark Energy - To account for this newly discovered acceleration (up until this point the cosmologists thought the galaxies were slowing down or would eventually slow down) the cosmologists had to invent a new theory that there is some sort of "dark energy" causing the galaxies to accelerate. They admit they have no idea what this dark energy is. Their "dark energy" is a replusive force whereas the "Fifth Force" is an attractive force. Just as gravity causes a body to accelerate (fall) toward the earth, the "Fifth Force" at the border of the univierse causes the galaxies to fall (accelerate) toward the border of the universe. This is the mysterious dark energy!
This attractive force causes all galaxies to accelerate (fall) outward, toward the boundary under the complete influence of Inertia (the Inertial Requirement of Space). As the body accelerates toward the border its relativistic inertial mass increases and therefore its also increases gravitational power.
It is well known that bodies falling for long distances in a gravitational field tend to separate from each other because the bodies closer to the source of attraction are in a slightly stronger gravitational field then the trailing bodies causing them to accelerate faster. This causes a gradual separation of the bodies over long periods of time and vast distances. If the Super Attractive Force, is located at the boundary of the universe, all the galaxies would be accelerating (falling) outward toward this boundary and when they near this 'boundary they are traveling near the speed of light and therefore very massive.
The universe is similar to a giant sphere, with all matter within the sphere falling toward their outer respective areas of the universe. Under the influence and guidance of inertia (and all the other laws of space) the matter eventually acquires the enough mass/energy as its space energy level rises to form stars and galaxies. The galaxies continue to accelerate toward the boundary all receding from each other laterally as well as longitudinally. Other factors such as gravitational attraction between the galaxies may cause them to deviate from their primary course on their long journey.
The central area of the universe is made up largely of near massless dark matter with very little gravitational attraction. Matter in this region is at a very low space energy level (mass/energy level). As this matter begins to gradually accelerate (as a result of the Super Attractive Force acting on it) in its long journey toward the far off boundary it begins to acquire mass/energy, (its space energy level increases) and therefore its gravitational power increases. The acceleration of the galaxies that the far off Super Attractive Force imparts on the matter, gradually raises the space energy level of the matter (its inertial mass) causing its gravitational power sufficiently to increase to the point that stars are able to form.
When a long enough period of acceleration has taken place and the matter has acquired sufficient mass/energy and gravitational attraction, the matter will then be able to converge, eventually forming tremendous collections of protostars (galaxies). At first the galaxies take on a dull reddish glow as the matter of the protostars begin to heat up due to the compressive force of gravity.
As the galaxies continue to accelerate, (rise to higher energy levels relative to absolute space) their protostars begin to reach the critical mass/energy levels needed for their gravitational strength to compress the matter so that their fusion reactions to began kicking in. The proto stars explode into full feldged stars emitting vast immense amounts of radiation. As the galaxies continue to (fall toward the border) reach ever higher enegy levels relative to absolute space they must continually emit vast amounts of radiation to keep from overmassing. This is the reason the Universe is filled with galaxies of brightly shining stars as they “fall” toward its boundary.
Throughout their life, the galaxies continue to fall toward the boundary, sweeping up more and more, dark, low mass, intergalactic matter and because of their increasing velocity, continually acquire more and more mass/energy. This is the source of energy for the four basic fundamental forces of nature. This Super Attractive Force causes the original acceleration of all matter. It therefore creates the mass/energy and gravitational power, etc. of all the matter in the universe.
It may be the “Fifth Force” that the scientists are currently searching for. It is the primary source of all the energy in the Universe, (EME, Gravity, etc.). The Laws of Universal Space govern this energy and matter.
The acceleration of the matter toward the boundary of the universe must be rather modest. After accelerating for billions of years, a galaxy may only be traveling a fraction of the speed of light. Most of the mass/energy gained during its acceleration is radiated back into space by the stars as EME radiation and gravitational energy, thus keeping the mass/energy level of the galaxy relatively stable. The primary energy of the Super Force is transformed by the Laws of Space, in particular, under the influence and guidance of Law of Inertia into the four Primary Forces that govern the mass/energy of matter.
As the galaxies continue to accelerate toward the far off boundary of the universe, its mass/energy continues to increase rapidly. The stars must furiously emit more and more radiation in order to keep from over massing. Eventually when the galaxies have accelerated far beyond the speed of our normal galaxies, approaching the speed of light. Conditions become so extreme that the stars of the galaxy must radiate thousands of times more radiation then stars in our vicinity of the universe just to keep from overmassing.
The relativistic curve begins to increase ever more sharply upward as the galaxy's space energy level passes one-half the speed of light. New fusion reactions kick in to produce the tremendous additional radiation emitted by these Quasar stars. These reactions create our heavier elements.
Near the boundary of the Universe the matter is traveling at tremendous speed, approaching Inertial Infinity (the speed of light), despite the immense amount of radiation the stars are emitting. The energy level of this matter is very high, relative to 'absolute space' - so high that matter as we know it cannot exist. The quarks which make up the protons etc. have acquired the tremendous energy needed to exist on their own. The protons are now literally exploding into super high energy quarks. They are approaching the boundary of the Universe.
Since nothing can exist beyond the boundary of the universe, where no laws exist, everything that strikes the boundary is absorbed. The primary energy that powers the universe has returned to its home base. The matter and mass/energy that strikes the boundary is absorbed. At the same time new, massless matter is created, to replace the absorbed matter, in the central region of the universe. It is ready to begin another journey. The total amount of matter and energy within the universe remains constant.
The matter and mass/energy in this extremely energetic border region, that was emitted in a direction away from the boundary, heads back into the universe as the high energy cosmic rays and background radiation. Our finite universe is a very old, very dynamic, constant state entity.
In summing up the rationale of this hypothesis over the Big Bang Theory, I feel, the Falling Galaxies Theory offers certain advantages such as: In the falling galaxies theory there is a continous renewal of matter as the old galaxies are absorbed at the boundary of the universe and new matter is created in the central portion of the universe. Whereas the continous perpetual expansion of universal space would eventually lead to the extermination of the universe as the galaxies move away from each other and the universe becomes just a big empty space.
In the Falling Galaxy Theory; the galaxies are gradually accelerating outward, falling toward the boundary of the universe, continually gaining more relativistic mass/energy, climbing to ever higher space energy levels relative to absolute space. This ever increasing gravitational power makes it possible for the fusion reactions to beginand new stars to be born. The tremendous radiant energy emitted by the Quasars is an indication; that the matter of the galaxies has reached incredibly high relativistic mass/energy levels, relative to absolute space. This in despite of the tremendous amount radiation that its stars have been emitting as their inertial mass increases to very high levels to keep from overmassing.
Donald L. Hamilton, author of: "The Mind of Mankind, Human Imagination, the source of Mankind's tremendous power!
Ref: Chapter 17 - "The Falling Galaxies" (The Mind of Mankind)
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Part 2. New concepts in Cosmology, Physics, Astronomy, Etc..
New concepts found in this book are:
"Searching for Reality with Imagination"